How to Make Handmade Soap.
This Video Shows You the All you need to know
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what is saponification?
In simple terms, saponification is the name for a chemical reaction between an acid and a base to form a salt. When you make soap using the cold process soap making method, you mix an oil or fat (which is your acid) with Lye (which is your base) to form soap (which is a salt). This is also true in Hot Process Soap making.
How exactly does this happen?
In order to understand it, you must consider the chemical makeup of the acid and base being used in the reaction.
The base must always be composed of one hydroxide ion. For the most part, people use lye (one sodium ion and one hydroxide ion) as their base. You will notice that the sodium ion does not take part in the reaction at all. For this reason, other bases like potassium hydroxide can be used as well because it too is made up of one hydroxide ion. Potassium hydroxide is more prominently used for liquid soap making.
There are many different types of acids that will react with your base and saponify. Your acid could be olive oil, coconut oil, sunflower oil or tallow just to name a few. Each acid has a unique combination of triglycerides (compounds made of three fatty acids, attached to a single molecule of glycerol) which combines with the base (lye) differently. The amount of base needed to react with the acid will vary depending on the chemical makeup of the acid.
As you combine, and stir the carefully measured acid and base together, they start to react. The triglycerides within the acid release the single glycerol molecule (which turns into skin nourishing glycerin) allowing the fatty acids to combine with the hydroxide ions within the base, forming soap.
As you can see, two reactions occur. The first reaction is glycerol turning into beneficial glycerin, and the second reaction is the acid and the base combining to form a salt which is your soap.
Simple, right? Ok, maybe not so simple. But don't worry about it! Continue on learning how to make soap, and come back to this page every now and then to re-read the chemistry of soap making. If it hasn't already, the chemical process will eventually click. I promise!
Now that I answered that initial question of what is saponification...you are ready to continue on your soap making journey.
This information was adapted from http://www.soap-making-resource.com/how-is-soap-made.html
What is Saponification Value or SAP?
The Saponification Value or SAP is the amount of Lye that is needed to completely saponify 1 gram of oil or butter. I am not so great with maths so I prefer to use an online Lye Calculator.
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